Psychometric Properties of the Malay-translated Mindfulness, Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS) in a Group of Nursing Students in Malaysia

Zainal NZ, Nor-Aziyan Y, Subramaniam P


Introduction: Interest in mindfulness and its enhancements have quietly exploded in recent years, bringing with it the need for validated instruments to assess mindfulness in the Malaysian population. The study aims to assess the reliability, factor structure and validity of the Malay version of The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MMAAS) in a group of nursing students.

Methods: The MMAAS was ‘forward-backward’ translated from English to Malay. Two hundred and sixty six nursing students answered the MMAAS. At the same time, they responded to the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). We performed Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) with varimaxrotation to examine the factor structure of the MMAAS. Associations of retained factors were estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients.

Results: Internal consistency reliability of MMAAS was good (Cronbach’s α = 0.851) and showed temporal stability in a 3-week period. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) suggested three factors labelled as “Attention related to generaldomain”, “Attention related to the physicaldomain” and “Attention related to psychological domain”. These factors explained 52.09% of the variance. The Malay MAAS and the English version was highly correlated (r=0.82, p<0.01). High score in mindfulness was significantly correlated with low level of mental disorders.

Conclusion: The results showed that the Malay-translated Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) possesses a three-dimensional factor structure and has satisfactory psychometric properties.

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Mindfulness; Psychometric Properties; Reliability; Validity

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