A Cross-Sectional Study Exploring Perceived Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Chronic Pain Patients in a Malaysian General Hospital

Kurubaran Ganasegeran, Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai, Tham Sin Wan, Sivashunmugam Sangaran, Muralitharan Perumal


Introduction: Chronic pain (CP) has caused substantial disabilities across populations worldwide. Depression, anxiety and stress have been known to afflict patients with CP. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of perceived depression, anxiety and stress and its associated factors among CP patients in a Malaysian pain clinic.

Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 117 consecutive CP patients attending the pain clinic in a Malaysian general hospital during a one-year period. Clinical characteristics and assessments were evaluated by an experienced pain physician and derived from patient medical records. A self-administered questionnaire that consisted of items on socio-demographics, the validated 21-items Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was utilized. Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to identify the factors associated with perceived depression, anxiety and stress.

Results: The prevalence of perceived depression, anxiety and stress was relatively high, approximately 40% in our study sample. Younger age and higher pain score were significantly associated with depression, anxiety and stress, while having neck/cervical pain in the past 3 months was significantly associated with depression and anxiety, and having hypertension was significantly associated with anxiety and stress.

Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of perceived depression, anxiety and stress in this sample was associated with socio-demographics, pain attributes and disease co-morbidities.

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Chronic Pain; Depression; Anxiety; Stress; Patients

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